中考英语语法知识点归纳

学习啦  芷琼   2017-04-06 10:36:47

  语法是学好英语的基础,为了使同学们系统地复习语法基础知识,接下来学习啦小编为你整理了中考英语语法知识点归纳,一起来看看吧。

  中考英语语法知识点:非谓语动词

  考点精讲

  考点一 动词不定式

  动词不定式是每年中考的必考点。考生必须清楚牢记并掌握不定式分别可以在句中所作的成分及功能。

  动词不定式作主语,如To learn math well is difficult for us.

  动词不定式作表语,如Her job is to do the dishes.

  动词不定式作宾语(包括疑问词加不定式),如They decided to visit the Great Lakes.

  Could you tell me how to get to the train station?

  动词不定式作宾语补足语,如The teacher asked us to turn off the lights.

  Hard seats make customers want to eat quickly and leave.

  动词不定式作定语,如I have a lot of books to read.

  动词不定式作状语,如To catch the train, we had to get up early.

  动词不定式的特殊句型

  1. too什么to表示“太怎么而不能”。如:

  The boy is too young to look after himself.那个男孩太小不能照顾自己。

  2. enough to表示“足够做什么”。如:

  He is old enough to go to school.他到了上学的年龄了。

  3. Why don't you 加不带to的不定式?等于Why not 加不带to的不定式?

  如:Why don't you get her a photo album?

  等于Why not get her a photo album? 为什么不给她买个相册呢?

  4. had better(not)加不带to的不定式表示“最好(不要)”。如:

  You had better not stay there today. 你今天最好别待在那儿。

  5. Will you please加不带to的不定式?表示“你能怎么样吗?”如:

  Will you please close the door?你能把门关上吗?

  6. prefer to do something rather than do something 表示“宁愿做某事而不愿做某事”。如:

  She prefers to receive a small gift that has some thought behind it rather than receive a lot of money.她宁愿收到一份有意义的小礼物也不愿收到一大笔钱。

  中考英语语法知识点:动词的语态

  考点精讲

  动词的语态

  动词被动语态的构成

  被动语态的基本结构:助动词be的各种时态形式加及物动词的过去分词。

  助动词be有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与系动词be完全一样。

  现以do为例,将几种常用时态的主动语态和被动语态讲解如下:

  一般现在时(2013年考查2次),构成am或者is或者are加done;例句My schoolbag is taken away.

  一般过去时(2013年考查2次;2012年考查3次;2011年考查1次),构成was或者were加done;例句Trees were planted in each side of the road.

  含情态动词(2013年考查1次;2012年考查2次;2011年考查1次),构成情态动词加be done;例句The work must be finished in two days.

  现在完成时has或者have加been done;例句Tom's bike has been stolen.

  一般将来时will或者be going to加be done;The meeting is going to be held in our school.

  通过分析广西近三年真题,对于被动语态的考查主要从两个层面入手:

  ①选项全是被动语态的,须要从主语和时间状语和时间状语分别判断被动语态的数和时态;

  ②选项中有主动语态也有被动语态的,首先需要判定被动语态,其次判断其时态和数。

  如何辨别主动语态和被动语态

  ①主动语态中主语是谓语动词的发出者。宾语是谓语动词的对象。

  ②被动语态中主语是谓语动词的承受者(动作的对象)。

  在下列三种情况之一要用被动语态:

  ①不知道动作的执行者是谁,用被动语态。如:

  Rice is grown in the south of China.中国南方种植水稻。

  ②没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,用被动语态。如:

  —Excuse me, Sir, smoking isn?t allowed in the gas station. 打扰一下,先生,加气站是不允许吸烟的。

  —Oh, I am really sorry. 哦,真地很抱歉。

  Your work must be finished today.你们的工作必须今天完成。

  ③需要强调动作的承受者时,用被动语态。如:

  Your work must be finished today.你们的工作必须今天完成。

  The doctor has been sent for.已经派人去请医生了。

  被动语态句型巧计口诀

  被动语态强调宾(语),用be加上过去分(词),

  行为对象作主语,逻辑主语by来引。

  中考英语语法知识点:不定式的否定式

  1. 不定式的否定式的构成

  通常是将否定词not或never置于不定式之前,即构成not to do 或never to do 的形式,注意not和never一定要放在不定式符号to的前面,而不是其后面:

  The doctor advised me not to smoke. 医生劝我不要抽烟。

  It’s politically short-sighted not to do so. 不这样做在政治上是短视的。

  He strongly advised me not to do so. 他使劲劝我别这样做。

  Take care not to break it. 小心别把它打破了。

  Be careful not to break anything. 当心别打破什么了。

  She had sense enough not to say anything about it. 她有足够的头脑不提此事。

  Father warned me never to drive after drinking. 父亲警告我不要酒后开车。

  Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits. 参观的人请勿触摸展品。

  【注意】若不定式为完成式和被动式,否定词应置于整个结构之前:

  She pretended not to have seen him. 她假装没看见他。

  It is nice not to be dependent on others. 不依靠别人是好的。

  You were silly not to have locked your car. 你没锁车太傻了。

  2. so as to do sth 和in order to do sth 的否定式

  对于这两个结构的否定式,通常是将否定词置于不定式符号to之前,而不是置于整个结构之前或其他位置:

  Study hard so as not to fail the exam. 努力学习,以免考试不及格。

  He came in quietly in order not to wake his wife. 他轻轻进来,以免把他妻子吵醒。

  Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 进去时不要出声,以免把宝宝吵醒。

  Take every precaution so as not to catch cold.采取一切预防措施以免感冒。

  We keep the window shut in order not to let the flies in. 我们把窗子关着以免苍蝇进来。

  They hid themselves in the cave in order not to be seen by the enemy. 他们躲在洞穴里以免被敌人发现。

  Please reply at once in order not to lose this opportunity of a lower price. 请立即回复,以免失去这次低价的机会。

  They must have worn gloves in order not to leave any fingerprints. 他们一定戴上了手套,以防留下指纹。


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