学习啦 文霞 2018-12-17 15:47:25
This is really a two-hour presentation I give to high school students, cut down to three minutes. And it all started one day on a plane, on my way to TED, seven years ago. And in the seat next to me was a high school student, a teenager, and she came from a really poor family. And she wanted to make something of her life, and she asked me a simple little question. She said, "What leads to success?"
And I felt really badly, because I couldn't give her a good answer. So I get off the plane, and I come to TED. And I think, jeez, I'm in the middle of a room of successful people! So why don't I ask them what helped them succeed, and pass it on to kids? So here we are, seven years, 500 interviews later, and I'm gonna tell you what really leads to success and makes TED-sters tick.
And the first thing is passion. Freeman Thomas says, "I'm driven by my passion." TED-sters do it for love; they don't do it for money. Carol Coletta says, "I would pay someone to do what I do." And the interesting thing is: if you do it for love, the money comes anyway.
Work! Rupert Murdoch said to me, "It's all hard work. Nothing comes easily. But I have a lot of fun." Did he say fun? Rupert? Yes! TED-sters do have fun working. And they work hard. I figured, they're not workaholics. They're workafrolics.
Good! Alex Garden says, "To be successful put your nose down in something and get damn good at it." There's no magic; it's practice, practice, practice.
And it's focus. Norman Jewison said to me, "I think it all has to do with focusing yourself on one thing."
And push! David Gallo says, "Push yourself. Physically, mentally, you've gotta push, push, push." You gotta push through shyness and self-doubt. Goldie Hawn says, "I always had self-doubts. I wasn't good enough; I wasn't smart enough. I didn't think I'd make it." Now it's not always easy to push yourself, and that's why they invented mothers. (Laughter) Frank Gehry -- Frank Gehry said to me, "My mother pushed me."
Serve! Sherwin Nuland says, "It was a privilege to serve as a doctor." Now a lot of kids tell me they want to be millionaires. And the first thing I say to them is: "OK, well you can't serve yourself; you gotta serve others something of value. Because that's the way people really get rich."
Ideas! TED-ster Bill Gates says, "I had an idea: founding the first micro-computer software company." I'd say it was a pretty good idea. And there's no magic to creativity in coming up with ideas -- it's just doing some very simple things. And I give lots of evidence.
Persist! Joe Kraus says, "Persistence is the number one reason for our success." You gotta persist through failure. You gotta persist through crap! Which of course means "Criticism, Rejection, Assholes and Pressure." (Laughter) So, the big -- the answer to this question is simple: Pay 4,000 bucks and come to TED. Or failing that, do the eight things -- and trust me, these are the big eight things that lead to success.
Thank you TED-sters for all your interviews!
Do it for love,Not Money 爱上这事情，而不是为了钱。
It’s all hard work.Nothing come easily.But I have a lot of Fun.——Rupert Murdoch, big cheese CEO
To be successful,put your nose down in something and get damn good at it.——Alex Garden, game developer
I think it all has to do with focusing yourself to one thing——Norman Jewison,filmmaker
Push yourself,Physically mentally,you gotta PUSH PUSH PUSH——David Gallo,marine scientist
It was aprivelege to serve ad a doctor.—–Sherwin nuland ,profassor of surgery Yale
Listen/be curous/observe/ask questions/problem/solve/make connetions
Persistence is the number one reason for our success—–Joe Kraus ,co-founder,Excite
Freeman Thomas 说：“我总是被我的热情所牵引着”
Carol Colletta 说：“我会付给别人钱去做我的工作。”
Rupert Murdoch 曾经告诉过我 “天上不会掉馅饼，做任何事情，都要努力的做，开心的做。” 他提到了乐趣?Rupert?是的!
强迫你自己。你要强迫自己去战胜羞涩和自我怀疑。”Goldie Hawn说：“我总是怀疑自己不够优秀，不够聪明。 我从不相信我会成功。”
现在很多孩子告诉我他们想成为百万富翁。 但是我对他们说的是： “好的，但是你不能为你自己服务，”
怎样才能有创意?要聆听(listen)，要观察(observe)，要有好奇心(be curious)，不懂就问(ask question)，解决问题(problem solve)，创造联系(make connections)。
【坚持 persist 】
Joe Kraus 说 :”你必须坚持度过失败，你必须坚持度过crap“ ”这里的crap是指”批评，拒绝，卑鄙小人和压力“
好的演讲首先是一篇好的文章。Abraham Lincoln的"Gettysburg Address" 或Martin Luther King, Jr的"I Have a Dream"既是震撼人心的演讲，也是蕴涵深刻而又富有文采的好文章。如果没有好的稿子，演讲者再投入, 声音情感再充沛，也不会触动听众内心。就像没有好剧本，光靠演员演的好是不够的。
1. 主题明确 (a clear core message)
在2005 Stanford Commencement Speech中，Steve Jobs从头至尾讲了三个故事，但始终围绕主题—don’t lose sight of your dreams and passions, regardless what happens to you. 他文中的 "Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life." "Stay hungry. Stay foolish." 强调主题，掷地有声。
正如Chris Anderson (curator of TED Talks) 所说的：" Pick one idea, and make it the through-line running through your entire talk, so that everything you say links back to it in some way."
2. 结构清晰 (well-organized structure)
首先，要有清晰的introduction, body, 和conclusion (引言，主体，结论)。 这是演讲内容的三要素。引言主要为了吸引听众和引入主题，主体是演讲的主要部分，包括具体论点(main points)和论据 (supporting material/evidence)。 结论部分让演讲自然结束并激发听众去思考和回味。
其次，主体部分的论点论据要有逻辑性，环环相扣，而不是单纯的把有关资料，数据，想法等罗列出来，像一盘散沙。常用的主体大纲有按照主题(topical),时间(chronological)，方位(spatial)， 提出问题-解决问题(problem-solution), 等。我不提倡演讲稿拘泥于这几种大纲类型，演讲者根据自己的内容组织大纲。 切记东一句西一句，不讲条理。
再有就是做好内容之间的过渡(transition)。 Transition让演讲显得更加流畅，让各种内容之间自然过渡，不显唐突。Transition没有想的那么容易。我听过有人在演讲中说了很多"then" 或 "but" 既重复又枯燥。想想还有没别的方法来表示递进或转折?
3. Show, Don’t Tell
几乎所有的creative writing 教材和课程都会强调 “show, don’t tell.”
我可以Tell: The morning was beautiful.
我也可以Show：As the sun rose, the morning dew glistened off the grass. The cool breeze whispered through trees. A hummingbird flew by my window, chirping a gentle lovely song.
前者平铺直叙，非常泛泛。而后者描述画面，从视觉(dew glistened off the grass)，触觉(cool breeze)和听觉(whispered through the trees; chirping a gentle lovely song)来表现出早上之美。
文学作品中show而不tell的例子很多，以后可以单独细说。演讲也讲究show, not tell, 将听众带入演讲者表达的意境中，产生共鸣。
在I Have a Dream” 中, Martin Luther King, Jr. 没有单纯地重复 I have a dream of equal rights之类的话，而是描述了他梦想中的种族平等时的各个具体的场景：
“I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”
在演讲中的“show, don’t tell” 还包括讲述引人入胜的故事，列举生动的例子。
Simon Sinek 的TED Talk “How great leaders inspire action”用了很多例子，而且都是关于大家很熟悉的公司的例子如Apple, Dell等。这些例子自然而充分的展示了他的演讲主题。让一个本来可能显得抽象的model简单化，而且一直吸引着听众。
My fellow citizens:
I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition.
Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because We the People have remained faithful to the ideals of our forbearers, and true to our founding documents.
So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans.
That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our healthcare is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet.
These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and statistics. Less measurable but no less profound is a sapping of confidence across our land - a nagging fear that America's decline is inevitable, and that the next generation must lower its sights.
Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. They are serious and they are many. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this, America - they will be met.
On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord.
On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises, the recriminations and worn out dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics.
We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness.
In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling