英语介词和动名词的用法

学习啦  曾扬   2018-09-07 16:58:36

  词性是英语语法学习入门的基础,这一关不难攻破。以下是小编为大家整理的关于介词和动名词的语法知识,希望能帮到你。

  一、常用介词用法比较

  (1)as , like

  as 表示"作为"强调身份,like (介词)表示"像"

  As a teacher, he cares for these children.

  Like a teacher, he cares for these children.

  (2)with , in

  with 表示"外貌特征或附带的东西" ," 用……作工具"

  in 表示"衣着" "用某语言", 在固定搭配中也可用in

  A man with dark glasses wanted to buy drinks.

  A man in black wanted to buy drinks.

  The boy is learning to write in pencil / with a pencil.

  He retold the text in English.

  (3)for , to

  for表示"为了."

  To 表示动作对象, "对, 向." 如:

  He would do anything for his motherland.

  Did you mention this to my father?

  你对我父亲提起过这件事吗?

  for 表示"就某情况而说 ", to 表示一"对某对象而言"如:

  It's quite warm today for February.就二月的天气,今天够暖和的。

  What he told you just now was not new to me

  他刚才对你所说的话对我并不新鲜

  for 表示"目的,用途"。与go, come 动词连用

  (5)on ,about 关于

  on 表示这本书、文章、演说是严肃的学术性的,供专门研究这一问题的人阅读;

  about表示内容较为普通,不那么正式。

  例句:There will be a lecture on economics this afternoon.

  He is writing a book on cooking.

  He told me a lot about his life in the summer vocation.

  (6)by, with, in 表示方法、手段、工具

  by 以……方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具;

  with 表示用 …工具、手段,一般接具体的工具和手段;

  in 表示用…方式,用…语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等;

  例句:He makes a living by selling newspapers.

  He broke the window with a stone.

  The foreigner spoke to us in English.

  二、表示方向的介词

  表示运动方向的介词

  (1)into, inside , in 从外到内 如:

  He went quickly into / inside the room.

  He went quickly into / inside the room.

  (2)out of 从里到外,相当于outside, 或从里向外,相当于from

  She went out of from the office in a hurry 她匆匆走出办公室.

  The boy watched the buses, cars and bikes out from the window .

  这男孩透过窗观看外面的公交车、小汽车和自行车。

  (3)on 在……表面,onto 到……上

  A boat is on the river. 一条小船在河上。

  He jumped onto a tree. 他跳上一棵树

  (4)across 穿过一平面、through 穿过一空间

  The boy kicked the ball hard and it moved across the grass.

  这男孩用力踢球,球飞过草地。

  The train moved fast through the tunnel. 火车飞驶隧道。

  (5)The train moved fast through the tunnel. 火车飞驶隧道。

  She walked to the bank 她步行到银行去

  She swam towards the shore 她朝岸边游去。

  三、动名词的作用

  1、作主语

  1)、 直接位于句首做主语。

  例如:Swimming is a good sport in summer.

  2)、 用 it 作形式主语,把动名词(真实主语)置于句尾作后置主语。动名词做主语时,不太常用 it 作先行主语,多见于某些形容词及名词之后。

  例如:It is no use telling him not to worry.

  3)、动名词作主语与动词不定式作主语的比较:动词不定式和动名词都可以用作主语。在意义上相近。但动名词多用来表示泛指或抽象动作,不定式多用来表示特指或具体动作。比较: Smoking is not good for health.  It is not good for you to smoke so much.

  2、作表语

  动名词作表语时句子主语常是表示无生命的事物的名词或what引导的名词性从句。表语动名词与主语通常是对等的关系,表示主语的内容,主语、表语可互换位置。

  Your task is cleaning the windows. 你的任务就是擦窗户。(Cleaning the windows is your task.)

  What I hate most is being laughed at. 我最痛恨的就是被别人嘲笑。 (Being laughed at is what I hate most.)

  3、作定语

  动名词作定语往往表示被修饰词的某种用途。如: a washing machine=a machine for washing=a machine which is used for washing 。

  4、作宾语

  例:We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term. 我们正考虑为下学期制定新的计划。

  5、有些词后只能接动名词 ,不能跟不定式。

  allow;avoid; celebrate; consider; discontinue; dislike; enjoy; escape; excuse; explain; feel like; finish; forgive; can’t help; imagine; keep; it means;mind; miss; practice; prevent;等

  6、另外还有一些接-ing形式的常用短语。

  spend money/time; think of, give up, put off, insist on, be good at, do well in, can't help, keep on, feel like, be tired (afraid, capable, fond) of, look forward to, be used to, devote oneself to, stick to, respond to, look forward to,

  7、 有些词后面加不定式和动名词均可,例如:remember, forget, try, stop, go on, stop,regret,, mean后面均可用不定式和-ing形式,但意义截然不容。

  例: like doing sth 表经常性动作like to do sth表习惯性动作;

  stop doing sth,停止正在做的事情stop to do sth停下来做另外一件事; remember,forget,regret的不定时结构指后于谓语动词的动作,动词的ing形式则先于谓语动词的动作

  remember to do/doing:

  ①I remembered to post the letters.(指未来/过去未来将要做的动作)

  ②I remembered posting/having posted the letters.(我记得做过这个动作)

  try to(努力)与try +–ing(试验):

  ①I tried not to go there.(我设法不去那里)

  ②I tried doing it again.(我试着又干了一次);go on to do sth继续做某事(不是同一件事), go on doing sth继续做某事(同一件事);

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